With regards to lift and drag on an aircraft, these phenomenon are generally discussed when the aircraft is in cruise mode. What happens during take-off and landing? Thank you.
When aircrafts fly very close to the ground i.e. during take off or landing, they experience a phenomenon referred to as the ground effect. Here, the aircraft generates higher lift force than normal because of the influence of the ground. This is brought about by the weakening of the wingtip vortices that leads to reduced induced drag in addition to increased pressure on the lower surface of the wing resulting in a higher lift force.
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