DPM axisymmetric problem to model bubble plume


I want to model a gas jet in water and the consequent bubble plume rising to water surface.

I decided to start with a simpler case, a steady dpm case where the discrete phase is the gas, so my particles are bubbles.

I'm asking for some help because the bubble diameter I need to use is 3 mm and since I need to enable lift force model on bubbles the solution I get is not realistic.

The problem is that some particles go through the axis boundary and I can't explain why, even if the residuals are good. This problem is present only if Saffman's lift is enabled.

I know Saffman's lift is for submicron particles so my question is how to model lift with big particles and if is possible to use dpm for bubbles that are not solid particles.

Any kind of advice is useful to me!

Thanks in advance.


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