A turbulent flow is characterized by scales of different length and time. As fluid flows, the energy is transferred from the largest scale to the smallest scale. This energy transfer happens because of the unstable nature of large eddies which are eventually broken down to the next smaller scale and then to the next and so on. This transfer of energy from the larger to smaller scales is called the energy cascade and it continues until the eddies achieve a stable motion. These smallest scale eddies are generally called the Kolmogorov Scales, and here, at this scale, the energy is dissipated into heat due to the molecular viscosity of the fluid.
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