For supersonic motion i.e when the speed of the fluid flow is greater than the speed of sound, the interaction between a body and the fluid will result in the formation of shock waves. A shock wave is a extremely thin region (of the order of the fluid molecules mean free path) where abrupt variations of the fluid properties happen. Moving across a shock wave the velocity drops, while pressure, temperature and density suddenly increase. Over the years, scientists were able to formulate analytical relations that can be used to determine how large those variations would be.
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