Arrayn#1 I read [19] Sully and Hancock, who show residual stress was measured in the flat sections only, where membrane stress was almost zero and bending stress was almost yield. While zero residual stress was used in their FEA model. I could not find anything resembling the claim by Tahir et al of residual stress of 0.4fy and (0.24–0.0006B) fy in the Sully paper.n#2 A remote force with behavior set to Rigid acting axially on the column is what is intended. You are good to go there.nYou will have to figure out how to extract the moment rotation curve. I am not an expert at this, though I have helped another member try to understand this in another discussion.n