**The referenced articles are:

Enwald, H., Peirano, E., Almstedt, A.-E., 1996. Eulerian two-phase flow theory applied to fluidization. International journal of multiphase flow 22, 21-66.

Peirano, E., Leckner, B., 1998. Fundamentals of turbulent gas-solid flows applied to circulating fluidized bed combustion. Progress in energy and combustion science 24, 259-296.