mesh = ExtAPI.DataModel.MeshDataByName('Global')
n=mesh.NodeById(1701) # for example node ID 1701
n.BodyIds # geometry body ID for attached node
n.GeoEntityIds # returns list of geometry IDs for attached node.
You could search for the BodyIds in the GeoEntityIds and ignore those, but you are still left with possible vertex, edge, and face Ids. A node on a vertex for example, can return a list of IDs for the underlying vertex as well as all edges and faces that touch that vertex and the body.
To find only faces attached to the node, loop through each ID in the GeoEntityIds list and check:
ExtAPI.DataModel.GeoData.GeoEntityById(ID).Type == GeoCellTypeEnum.GeoFace