Bends can often excite higher order modes. The smaller the radius of the bend is, the quicker the waveguide changes exciting more modes. You can find a lot of exisiting articles to see how the bending radius influnences the effective index and higher-order modes. We also have an example that shows the impact of bends, but it is in FEEM (https://optics.ansys.com/hc/en-us/articles/4409707153811-Bent-Waveguide-FEEM-).
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