When cold water flows through a pipe, the material experiences thermal contraction, causing it to slightly contract. Conversely, when hot water flows through the pipe, thermal expansion occurs, leading to slight expansion of the material. This cyclic thermal stress can induce fatigue in the pipe material over time.
To assess the fatigue life of a pipe under these conditions, several factors need to be considered, such as the pipe material, its mechanical properties, the pipe's geometry, and the magnitude and frequency of the temperature variations. Additionally, other factors like pressure, flow rate, and environmental conditions may also influence the fatigue life.
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