Problems in simulating breakdown of avalanche photodiode


      I want to simulate the dark current of an avalnche photodiode using lumerical charge.

      The problem is that if I open the impact ionization model, the voltage scan starts backtracking very early(figure 1), which is still far from the breakdown voltage(about -24V).

      The convergence troubleshooting is reported but in the simulation result of dark current, no breakdown can be observed. I want to know the reason for the problem. How can I observe the breakdown in the simulation result?( I have set voltage scan step 0.1V, opened gradient mixing and increased the global iteration limit but it still does not help.)

      The model of the APD structure is shown in figure 2 and the settings of the model is shown in figure 3(reference: Jiang, Yi, Chen, Jun. "Optimization of the Linearity of InGaAs/InAlAs SAGCM APDs," Journal of lightwave technology. vol. 37, no. 14, pp. 3459–3464, 2019.). The parameters of impact ionization model for multiplication layer is shown in the last two figure.I have post the problem on the forum 2 weeks ago without replying by now. Detailed settings of the model is shown this time and I am looking forward to the reply. Thank you!

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